Internal Medicine

Photo: Clinical Trial Flyer for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Dogs

Below, please find links to all of the clinical trials involving internal medicine. The studies include a multitude of information, including (but not limited to) the study’s purpose, benefits for participating, and financial incentive information. If you have any questions, please contact the individual outlined at the end of each trial summary.

Please visit the Internal Medicine service on the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) website if you would like to learn more about the amazing things that our veterinarians can do for you and your animal.

Horses & Ponies

Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis (EMPF): Assessing Viral Kinetics of Valacyclovir

Title: Effect of valacyclovir on EHV-5 viral kinetics in horses diagnosed with EMPF

Purpose of Study: Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF) is a recently reported sporadic, progressive and fibrosing interstitial lung disease of adult horses. There is growing evidence that EMPF is associated with equine herpesvirus-5 (EHV-5). Histopathological results coupled with positive EHV-5 by qPCR on pulmonary tissue are considered the current gold standard for EMPF diagnosis. Valacyclovir, an anti-herpetic drug, is routinely used to treat horses with EMPF. The effect of this anti-herpetic drug has not been determined in regard to its capability to reduce viral loads of EHV-5 in blood, nasal secretions and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Due to the costs of the drug, it is imperative to determine if the drug has an antiviral effect against EHV-5.

Contact: Contact Dr. Nicola Pusterla at npusterla@ucdavis.edu or Dr. Charlotte Easton-Jones at caeastonjones@ucdavis.edu 

Participation Requirements: Horses diagnosed with EMPF based on a lung biopsy

Initial Evaluation for Participation: The case can be referred to the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital once full diagnostic work-up has been completed or the case can be worked-up at the VMTH. Costs for the diagnostic work-up will be assumed by the client (clinical assessment, minimal data base (CBC and biochemical panel), chest radiographs, BALF collection and cytology, lung biopsy with histopathology). Costs for EHV-5 testing will not be charged to the client.

Procedures: If you agree to let your cat participate in this study, the following will happen:

  • Your horse will receive valacyclovir tablets provided by the researchers for 10 days. Blood and nasal secretions will be collected daily during the 10 days of valacyclovir treatment.
  • Immediately following the 10-days of oral valacyclovir treatment and 30 days post-treatment, you will need to bring your horse in for re-examination, blood and nasal secretion collection, and bronchoalveolar lavage.

Benefits: The study will cover the valacyclovir treatment and costs associated with the testing for EHV-5, recheck examinations with blood work and BALF analysis.

We cannot promise any benefits to your horse taking part in this clinical trial; however, the results of this longitudinal study will help us determine if valacyclovir has a beneficial effect on the EHV-5 viral loads in blood, nasal secretions and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. This information is very important to improve the treatment of EMPF.

Owner Responsibilities: The daily collection of blood and nasal secretions can be performed at the VMTH while the horse is hospitalized or at the location where the horse is stabled if the referring veterinarian and/or the client are willing to collect the samples. The client will need to bring the horse back to the VMTH for the follow-up collection (at the end of the 10-day valacyclovir treatment and 30 days later).

Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage: Assessing a Preventative

Title: Efficacy of Furosemide Dosed 4 vs 24 Hours Pre-Race

Purpose of Study: Exercised Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage (EIPH/bleeding) in racehorses has the potential to impact in the short-term athletic performance and possibly long term racehorse health. Furosemide administration is permitted as a preventative treatment for EIPH up to 4 hours prior to post time in North American racing jurisdictions including California. Preliminary studies at another research institution suggesting that administration of furosemide (Lasix) 24 hours prior to strenuous exercise may be similarly effective in controlling hemorrhage from EIPH as furosemide administration at 4 hours. This study is designed to either confirm or disprove those findings and to examine certain physiological measurements, which may help identify the mechanism of action of furosemide and other EIPH management options. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to confirm that furosemide on race day at 4 hours is necessary to reduce EIPH and determine if the therapeutic levels of furosemide are maintained for as long as 24 hours post-administration to racehorses.

Contact: Dr. Heather Knych (hkknych@ucdavis.edu)

Participation Requirements: Racehorses currently in training

Initial Evaluation for Participation: All horses will undergo a lameness evaluation by a veterinarian prior to enrollment in the study

Procedures: If you agree to let your cat participate in this study, the following will happen:

  • The trial will be conducted at the racetrack where the horse resides. The horse will be expected to complete 3 simulated races (distance of 5 furlongs) during the study.
  • There will be 3 treatments administered over the course of the study, including (1) Lasix administered 4 hours prior to race, (2) Lasix administered 24 hours prior to race and (3) a saline (no drug) injection prior to each simulated race. All horses will receive all 3 treatments during the course of the study with the order of treatments randomly chosen and a minimum washout period of 2 weeks between simulated races.
  • Blood samples will be collected immediately prior to and post racing for determination of drug levels.
  • One hour after the race is completed, each horse will undergo an endoscopic airway exam and fluid will be collected to count blood cells in the lungs at the same by a BAL procedure. The airway exam will be recorded and graded at a later time by 3 veterinarians blinded to the treatment.

Benefits: There is no charge for you to allow your horse to participate in this clinical trial. All costs associated with the study will be paid by the sponsor/department. If you agree to take part in this research study and complete all 3 simulated races under the conditions described, you will receive a one-time payment of $3,000.

We cannot promise any benefits to your horse or other animals from your taking part in this clinical trial; however, possible benefits include a better understanding of EIPH and the effectiveness of Lasix in treating it.

Owner Responsibilities: We expect that participation in this clinical trial will last for a minimum of 4 weeks and a maximum of 8 week. Horses will be expected to participate in 3 simulated races using 2-3 horse running start (no gate) 5 furlong workouts in 1:02 or better with a minimum of 2 weeks between each simulated race. If you allow your horse to participate in this study, you will be responsible for ensuring the horse is ready at the designated time for each simulated race and is available to complete all 3 runs.

Cats

Feline Upper Respiratory Tract Disease: Understanding the Disease

Title: Efficacy of famciclovir for control of clinical manifestations of feline upper respiratory tract disease

Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of a new technique called quantitative PCR (qPCR), which measures the number of viruses and bacteria in the nose, to identify a role for these organisms in cats diagnosed with feline upper respiratory tract disease. We also aim to evaluate the efficacy of famiclovir in combination with standard therapy with an antibiotic for treatment of upper respiratory tract disease.

Contact: Contact Dr. Lucy Kopecny for details at lkopecny@ucdavis.edu or call (530) 752-1393 to make an appointment

Participation Requirements: Kittens with acute upper respiratory tract disease displaying signs of sneezing, ocular or nasal discharge for less than 3 weeks that have not received prior treatment

Initial Evaluation for Participation: The investigators will determine eligibility for inclusion in the trial following consultation.

Procedures: If you agree to let your cat participate in this study, the following will happen:

  • Prior to treatment – Completion of a survey about your cat’s clinical signs, sample collection from the eyes and mouth using a Q-tip
  • Treatment – Oral administration of an antibiotic (doxycycline) alone or in combination with an antiviral drug (famciclovir) for 3 weeks. During this time, you will be asked to score the severity of your cat’s clinical signs daily
  • 3 weeks post treatment – Completion of a survey about your cat’s clinical signs, sample collection from the eyes and mouth using a Q-tip

Benefits: The study will cover costs associated with the quantitative PCR, medications, and visit costs to obtain samples.

Results from this study may help to identify the most appropriate diagnostic tests to use in this disease process and optimal treatment of affected cats.

Owner Responsibilities: You will be responsible for bringing your cat to all scheduled appointments, completing the surveys and administering medication twice daily during the 3 weeks of treatment.

Printable Flyer (PDF)

Fungal Disease: Examining a Treatment

Title: Voriconazole efficacy in cats with fungal disease

Purpose of Study: Voriconazole is a broad spectrum anti-fungal that is the treatment of choice for systemic aspergillosis in people and also used for variety of other fungal diseases. Drug treatment options in cats are limited because of little information of effect of anti-fungal medications on cats. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of voriconazole against serious systemic fungal diseases like aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, sporotrichosis, histopalsmosis and others.

Contact: Contact Dr. Polina Vishkautsan for details at pvishkautsan@ucdavis.edu or (530) 752-1393.

Participation Requirements: Cats with fungal disease that did not respond to existing anti-fungal options (e.g., fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B) or did not tolerate the adverse effects of the above-mentioned medications

Initial Evaluation for Participation: An appointment with the VMTH Internal Medicine service

Procedures: If you agree to let your cat participate in this study, the following will happen:

  • Your cat will be treated with voriconazole by mouth on day 1, and then again every third day.
  • On days 14, 30, 60 and 90 of treatment and then every 60-90 days until exit from study, we will do a physical examination and collect blood to measure voriconazole levels and test liver function.
    • NOTE: If your cat will require dose adjustments, he may need to be seen more frequently for blood sampling and rechecks.
  • We ask that you complete a monthly questionnaire and keep a journal to document any adverse effects that occur during the period of the trial.
  • In the unfortunate event of death, we will request that you will allow us to perform a necropsy of your cat (free of charge).

Benefits: We cannot promise any benefits to your cat or other animals from your taking part in this clinical trial; however, possible benefits include better disease outcome for your cat since voriconazole is a very efficacious and broad spectrum anti-fungal medication. Results from this study could lead to cats worldwide being treated with this medication.

Owner Responsibilities: If you allow your cat to participate in this study, you will be responsible for filling out a questionnaire once a month, recording all adverse effects in a journal, and keep all scheduled appointments. You will be responsible for covering all aspects of the care for your pet.

Ureteral obstructions: Evaluating Post-Surgery Outcomes

Title: Evaluation of Post-operative Outcome in Cats Undergoing Ureteral Stent Placement to Relieve Ureteral Obstruction

Purpose of Study: The purpose of this project is to record the intra-operative and postoperative complications associated with the procedure and determine the outcome of the procedure based on objective measures.

Contact: Contact Dr. Culp for details at wculp@ucdavis.edu or (530) 752-1393.

Participation Requirements: Cats with benign ureteral obstruction

Initial Evaluation for Participation: Contact Dr. Culp for details at wculp@ucdavis.edu or (530) 752-1393

Procedures: Cats with a diagnosis of benign ureteral obstruction will be enrolled in the study. Bloodwork values that can be utilized to determine the function of the kidney (should improve with the passage of urine) as well as variables such as the size of the kidney collecting system and ureter (should decrease with passage of urine) in cats both pre- and postoperatively will be evaluated. Lastly, the change in the urine output of cats with ureteral stents will be assessed to determine if the stents improve output.

Benefits: The benefits of enrolling a patient in this study are financial. Some of the pre- and post-stent placement bloodwork and pre- and post-stent placement ultrasound evaluations will be paid for by the study.

If this therapy proves to be beneficial, it will have important clinical applications for other cats with the same condition.

Owner Responsibilities: The owner is responsible for returning with their cat 2 weeks and 3 months after stent placement.

Variety of Tumors: Assessing Minimally Invasive Tumor Ablation

Title: Thermal ablation of cancer in dogs and cats

Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of treating veterinary patients with minimally invasive tumor ablation technologies including cryoablation and microwave ablation. These methods are growing in the treatment of a variety of cancers in the human medical field, but information in veterinary patients is currently very limited. To date we have completed a study on cryoablation in nasal tumor patients, and this technique has been very successful in reducing tumor volume in nasal tumor patients – although there are no more spots in the formal nasal tumor study, because of this success, we continue to offer this technique as a clinical service to nasal cancer patients, and are expanding the types of cancer that we are evaluating.

Contact: Call 530-752-1393 and ask to speak to the Soft Tissue Surgery scheduling coordinators to schedule an appointment with Dr. Michele Steffey. The coordinators will likely advise you to send your pet's medical records and imaging results for Dr. Steffey's review. If, based on this information, your pet is deemed an appropriate candidate, an appointment will be scheduled.

Participation Requirements: In order to participate in this study, your pet must have **solitary** malignant soft tissue or bony mass **that is deemed amenable to ablation**. Tumor types that MAY be amenable to this treatment include lung tumors, kidney tumors, adrenal tumors, and bone tumors in certain locations. however determination of eligibility is complex and relates to the size of the lesion as well as proximity to/involvement of other important nearby structures. Tumors that are superficial (involving or near to the skin) or that involve the gastrointestinal tract are not amenable to this treatment.

Initial Evaluation for Participation: Evaluation by the V.M.T.H. Small Animal Surgery, Internal Medicine, or Oncology services.

Procedures: If you agree to participate, under general anesthesia, ablation probes will be placed into your pet’s mass under ultrasound guidance and the tumor will be ablated.

Benefits: This treatment method may only be palliative, but it is our hope that in appropriately selected patients, we may improve quality of life as well as longevity.

Owner Responsibilities: The study will cover the cost of the ablation probes and generator. Costs of pre-operative workup, general anesthesia, recommended imaging, hospitalization, and general management of the disease process or any complications that occur during treatment are your responsibility.

Variety of Tumors and Diseases: Improving Operative Detection of Tumors

Title: Fluorescent imaging of cancer

Purpose of Study: Near-infrared fluorescent imaging utilizes special wavelengths of light to identify important structures, and is used in surgery to improve surgical decision making. The fluorescent light is generated by a special contrast agent (a “fluorophore”) that is injected into the patient. When a special light source is used to illuminate the surgical site, any tissue in which this fluorophore is located will glow, aiding the surgeon in identifying the location or extent of disease. Based on early experiments in rodents and human clinical trials, this very sensitive tool has the potential to improve surgical decision-making and improve overall treatment for a wide variety of diseases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of this imaging modality in veterinary patients presenting with naturally occurring neuroendocrine tumors disease processes.

Contact: Call 530-752-1393 and ask to speak to the Soft Tissue Surgery scheduling coordinators to schedule an appointment with Dr. Michele Steffey.

Participation Requirements: Dogs with the following conditions are most likely to benefit from this study: hyperparathyroidism, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, adrenal cancer, thymoma, mammary (breast) cancer, lung cancer, anal sac gland cancer, oral cancer, mast cell tumor. Dogs with severe kidney or liver disease are not eligible to participate.

Initial Evaluation for Participation: Evaluation by the V.M.T.H. Small Animal Surgery, Internal Medicine, or Oncology services.

Procedures: If you agree to participate, the best fluorophore for your pet’s tumor will be administered or intravenously, at a dose and timing considered to be optimal by your attending veterinarian.

Benefits: It is hoped, but is not known if there will be a specific benefit to your individual pet. Fluorescent imaging may or may not improve operative localization and dissection of your pet’s tumor.

Owner Responsibilities: Costs of standard pre-operative workup, general anesthesia, recommended imaging, hospitalization, and general management of your pet’s disease process or any complications that occur during treatment are your responsibility. The cost of the fluorophore and special imaging is covered by the study. If an allergic reaction should occur, immediate costs of treatment (immediate supportive medications, support of blood pressure) will be covered by the study; however, the owner will be responsible for any treatment costs for prolonged or severe complications.

Dogs

Bladder Stones (Struvite): Dissolution via Diet

Title: Use of Canine Struvite Dissolution Diet in the Management of Infection Induced Struvite Stones in Dogs

Purpose: We hope to provide another option to struvite stone dissolution in dogs. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a therapeutic diet for struvite dissolution in dogs.

Contact: Dr. Jodi Westropp at stonelab@ucdavis.edu or make an appointment by calling (530) 752-1393

Participation Requirements:

  • Dogs with radiodense bladder stone(s) and concurrent UTI with a urease-producing bacteria, such as Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp. or Proteus spp.
  • Exclusion Criteria: Dogs with concurrent disorders (e.g., diabetes mellitus), consuming urinary prevention/dissolution diets or receiving antibiotics for more than 3 days (NOTE: it is OK to begin them if clinically warranted, but call the above-mentioned number when you are aware of these cases) will be considered ineligible.  

Initial Evaluation for Participation: None.

Procedures: 

  • Blood and urine collection
  • Abdominal x-rays and ultrasound to document the size of the bladder stones (sedation and/or a cleansing enema may also be required)
  • Completion of a very short daily questionnaire regarding your pet’s clinical signs during the study duration
  • Recheck evaluations will be scheduled at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks
  • If at 12 weeks stones are 80% to < 100% dissolved, you will be asked to continue feeding the test diet for 1-2 months longer
  • If your dog’s stones do not dissolve in the time period stated, they will be removed via the most appropriate method (e.g., laser lithotripsy, surgery, or voiding urohydropropulsion) following a discussion with you.

Benefits: The study will cover all costs associated with participation and provide food free of charge for the duration of the study.

Results from this trial may help determine another dietary method for non-invasive struvite dissolution in dogs.

Owner Responsibilities: We expect that participation in this clinical trial will last approximately 8-12 weeks unless otherwise discussed. If you allow your dog to participate in this study, you will be responsible for coming to all scheduled appointments, feeding the test diet exclusively (with only a few prescribed dog treats provided if you desire), and completing the questionnaire as described previously.

Owner - Printable Flyer (PDF
Referring Veterinarian - Printable Flyer (PDF)

Fungal Infections (Aspergillus spp) in German Shepherds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, and Hungarian Vizslas

Title: Genetic analysis of the susceptibility to systemic Aspergillus infections in dogs

Purpose: Systemic fungal infections such as aspergillosis are rare in animals with a competent immune system; however, certain dog breeds (namely the German shepherd, Rhodesian ridgeback and Hungarian vizsla) are reported to have a higher risk of this uncommon disease. A genetic etiology is suspected to cause this over-representation. We propose to use a technique called genome-wide association analysis to evaluate the differences in the genetic material of affected dogs (dogs infected with Aspergillus spp.).

Contact: Dr. Jonathan Dear, DVM, DACVIM at jddear@ucdavis.edu

Participation Requirements:

  • German Shepherds with systemic Aspergillus spp. infections
  • Rhodesian Ridgebacks with systemic Aspergillus spp. infections
  • Hungarian Vizslas with systemic Aspergillus spp. infections

Initial Evaluation for Participation: None.

Procedures: The only procedure required is the collection and submission of a blood sample for DNA extraction. For more information about submitting samples, please contact Dr. Jonathan Dear (details above).

Benefits: Results from this study will hopefully lead to the development of DNA tests that would identify dogs at risk for developing systemic aspergillosis. These tests would help simplify the diagnosis of the disease by identifying at risk individuals and allow breeders to avoid producing affected dogs. Furthermore, if the genetic traits responsible for this disease in dogs are shared with human patients, precision medicine can be used to help develop targeted therapies to treat this life-threatening disease.

Owner Responsibilities: The owner or referring veterinarian needs to collect and submit a blood sample and medical records.

Printable Flyers

  • German Shepherds (PDF)
  • Vizslas (PDF)
Cushing's Disease (Hyperadrenocorticism): Improving Diagnostic Values

Title: Evaluation of post-dexamethasone cortisol value used to diagnose hyperadrenocorticism in dogs

Purpose of Study: The cut off values previously used to diagnose hyperadrenocorticism, or Cushing’s disease, were first determined over 30 years ago. Since then, there have been significant advancements in laboratory equipment and techniques as well as the clinician’s ability to identify this disease as a differential diagnosis. The goal of this study is to re-evaluate the cut off values used to diagnose hyperadrenocorticism in dogs.

Contact: Dr. Ann Della Maggiore (adellamaggiore@ucdavis.edu) or Dr. Laura Lim or (lkylim@ucdavis.edu)

Participation Requirements: Adult dogs suspected to have hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s disease; either pituitary or adrenal dependent) prior to receiving any medical therapy.

Initial Evaluation for Participation: An appointment with the VMTH Internal Medicine Service will be necessary to confirm eligibility for study, please note to reception staff that you are interested in this study.

Procedures: If you agree to let your dog participate in this study, the following will happen:

  • Day 1: We will collect a blood and urine sample for analysis, assess blood pressure, and need you to collect two urine samples from your pet at home prior to arrival and bring these with you. These samples should be collected first thing in the morning for two consecutive days prior to arrival, and kept refrigerated. You will be required to complete the study questionnaire. This can be performed with initial appointment or an initial assessment and consultation can be performed with you to schedule an additional visit for enrollment and sample collection.
  • Day 2: We will perform an ACTH stimulation test and an abdominal ultrasound.
  • Day 3: We will perform an 8-hour low-dose dexamethasone suppression test which requires a 8-12 hour fast.
  • We may contact you or your regular veterinarian in the future by telephone or email to follow-up on your dog and request that you schedule an appointment for recheck.

Benefits: Dogs suspected to having hyperadrenocorticism will assist in evaluation of cut off values used to make a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. The study will cover the cost of the abdominal ultrasound, one of the urine cortisol creatinine ratios, endogenous ACTH level, ACTH stimulation test, low dose dexamethasone suppression test, and cost associated with hospitalization during the day. 

Owner Responsibilities: We expect that participation in this clinical trial will last for a total of 3 (non consecutive) days. Testing must be performed before any treatment is initiated. You will be responsible for keeping all scheduled appointments and covering the cost of the treatment of hyperadrenocorticism, initial examination, initial laboratory evaluation (CBC, chemistry panel, urinalysis and urine culture), urine cortisol creatinine ratio, blood pressure, along with any additional testing recommended by the clinician managing the case. These tests would be standard in evaluation of any dog suspected to have hyperadrenocorticism.

Printable Flyer (PDF)

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: Assessing a Novel Non-Antibiotic Treatment

Title: Evaluation of the Live Biotherapeutic Product, Asymptomatic Bacteria, E. coli 2-12, in Dogs with Recurrent UTI

Purpose of Study: Recurrent (more than 3 per year) urinary tract infections (UTI) are problematic for dogs and continual administration of antimicrobial therapy could lead to bacteria becoming resistant. Therefore, the purpose of this trial is to investigate a novel non-antibiotic treatment for recurrent UTIs in dogs.

Contact: Dr. Jodi Westropp via email (jlwestropp@ucdavis.edu or jlwestropp@gmail.com) or phone (laboratory 530-752-3228; VMTH 530-752-1393)

Participation Requirements: Dogs that have had more than three (3) UTIs in a single year. These UTIs must also be associated with clinical signs that antibiotics have alleviated in the past.

Initial Evaluation for Participation: The study investigators will contact your veterinarian with your permission to determine eligibility.

Procedures: If you agree to let your dog participate in this study, the following will happen:

  • First visit:
    • We will perform a complete physical examination and collect baseline blood and urine and urine culture for analysis.
    • An abdominal ultrasound will also be done to look for underlying causes for why your dog is getting recurrent UTI. If no underlying causes can be documented, your dog will be sedated so we can insert a urinary catheter into your dog’s urethra. The asymptomatic strain of bacteria will be infused into the bladder. After the procedure, your dog will recover at the VMTH and then be discharged to you that same day. This procedure will hopefully be the same day as the initial evaluation.
  • Follow-up:
    • You will need to bring your dog back to the VMTH in 1, 7 and 14 days after the instillation of the ASB strain. Furthermore, a final evaluation 2 months later is also required. Urine will be collected at each visit.
    • During the first two weeks, you will need to complete a daily questionnaire regarding your pet’s clinical signs. This questionnaire takes approximately 30-60s to complete.

Benefits: The study will cover all costs associated with the study; however, if you decide to remove your dog from the study, all further costs related to the presenting problem (recurrent UTI), will be your responsibility to cover. If any serious complications occur due to participation in the study, treatment for those complications will be covered by the study.

We cannot promise any benefits to your dog or other animals from your taking part in this clinical trial; however, possible benefits include 1) elimination the clinical signs and discomfort associated with infection; 2) a decrease the need for antimicrobial drug therapy 3) reduction the number of dogs with recurrent infections; and, improvement outcomes for other dogs and possibly human beings that suffer from recurrent UTI.

Owner Responsibilities: If you allow your dog to participate in this study, you will be responsible for keeping the scheduled visits that are assigned to you and completing the questionnaire regarding your pet’s urinary tract health. We expect that participation in this clinical trial will require up to 4 visits to the VMTH, but only the first visit will be require that your dog stay at the VMTH for at least 4 hours for evaluation. You will be responsible for contacting us immediately should you have any concerns about your dog or if your dog has any serious complications.

Printable Flyer (PDF)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evaluating a Stem Cell Therapy

Title: Immunomodulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Purpose of Study: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs often involves lifelong steroid therapy, which holds the risk for a variety of potentially serious complications. Because of the ability to regulate immune responses and facilitate tissue regrowth or repair, we believe that fat-derived, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may help to decrease the abnormal immune response and the accompanying inflammation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a new stem cell therapy for canine IBD and better understand how stem cells work to limit inflammation and repair gut tissue.

Contact: Dr. Amir Kol (akol@ucdavis.edu)

Participation Requirements: Dogs suspected of having inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), specifically adult dogs with chronic, idiopathic, diarrhea (>3 weeks) that have failed dietary management (4-6 weeks) and empiric antimicrobial therapy (minimum 2 week course of metronidazole and/or Tylosin therapy) for their disease.

Initial Evaluation for Participation: Prior to enrollment, dogs will have received the full diagnostic work-up that includes a fecal screen for endoparasites, a CBC, serum biochemistry profile, urinalysis, measurement of serum B12 and folate concentrations, and abdominal ultrasound. Additional screening tests will be performed at the discretion of the attending gastroenterologist.

  • Exclusion criteria - Dogs previously (< 2 months) or currently treated with corticosteroids and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) will be excluded from the study.

Procedures: If you agree to let your dog participate in this study, the following will happen:

  • Visit 1: On the day of study enrollment, your dog will have belly fat and full thickness gut biopsies collected via a minimally invasive surgery performed under general anesthesia. Prior to anesthesia, we will collect approximately 20ml of blood. During the procedure, we will collect a golf ball-sized amount (10-20 grams) of abdominal fat and the draining lymph node.
  • Visit 2: Two to three weeks after fat harvest, your dog will either receive the placebo or a dose of 25 million MSCs given by intravenous infusion. Dogs receiving the placebo will also receive the medical standard-of-care (steroid therapy) at the same time points as treatment group dogs.
  • Visit 3: Two weeks after the first treatment, your dog will receive a second injection of either stem cell treatment or placebo according to their group assignment. At this time, we will clinically examine your dog and collect about 20ml of blood.
  • Visit 4: Two weeks after the second treatment, we will clinically examine your dog and collect about 20ml of blood. Afterwards, your dog will be anesthetized and undergo a minimally invasive endoscopic examination of its gut with a flexible endoscope. Partial thickness gut biopsies and ultrasound guided abdominal lymph node aspirates will be collected at this time.
  • Follow-up: You will then be asked to return for clinical follow-up and blood sampling 2 more times within a 4-week interval.

Benefits: We cannot promise any benefits to your dog or other animals from your taking part in this clinical trial; however, possible benefits include the potential of your dog to achieve a state of remission from IBD without the use of steroid therapy. Moreover, this study may help us to further target specific use of stem cells for other dogs or even humans that suffer from inflammatory bowel disease.

Owner Responsibilities: You are only responsible for covering the cost of an endoscopic examination had your dog not been enrolled in the study (i.e., the standard-of-diagnosis that your dog would have received at the time of the first visit). The study will cover everything else, including the examination fees, cost of biopsy processing and interpretation, the difference between the costs of the laparoscopic and endoscopic (standard-of-diagnosis) procedures performed at the first visit, and procedures involved with fat harvest and stem cell expansion, the second endoscopic procedure, and ultrasound guided abdominal lymph node aspirate.

Printable Flyer (PDF)

Large Bowel Disease: Evaluating a New Diagnostic Tool

Title: Evaluation of CT as a diagnostic tool for large bowel disease in dogs

Purpose of Study: We are evaluating the benefits of a novel CT protocol for large bowel disease. Surgical planning for conditions of the large bowel can be difficult as there are many ways to surgically approach lesions of the large bowel. Appropriate surgical planning plays a large role in the success of the procedure. While existing imaging methods provide some information about the lesion, there are sometimes major limitations to the information provided. Three-dimensional imaging, such as CT, is likely to improve our understanding of the disease and, our surgical planning in cases of mass lesions.

Contact: If you are interested in participating in this clinical trial, please schedule an appointment with the UCD VMTH Internal Medicine Service at 530-752-1393. For specific procedure questions, have your veterinarian contact Dr. Michele Steffey at 530-752-1393 and following the prompts for Surgery.

Participation Requirements:

  • Dogs experiencing clinical signs of large bowel disease (colon or rectum)
  • As the owner, you have elected to have a colonoscopy and biopsies performed under general anesthesia for diagnosis of the underlying disease

Initial Evaluation for Participation: Evaluation by the UCDavis VMTH Internal Medicine Service

Procedures: If you agree to participate, your dog will be anesthetized according to standard of care recommended by the Anesthesia Service. Prior to your dog’s scheduled colonoscopy, your dog will go to CT for the imaging scan using a new technique. He/she will then proceed for his/her colonoscopy/biopsy procedure as planned.

Benefits: There is no charge for you to allow your dog to participate in this clinical trial as all costs associated with the study, including the CT scan and additional anesthesia time needed to perform the CT imaging will be paid by the sponsor/department. You will additionally receive an additional $150 subsidy on your bill toward the cost of the colonoscopy procedure.

We cannot promise any benefits to your dog or other animals from your taking part in this clinical trial; however, possible benefits include improved methods of diagnosis of large bowel disease or improved surgical planning for focal large bowel problems.

Owner Responsibilities: If you allow your dog to participate in this study, you will be responsible for bringing your dog to the U.C. Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) for his/her scheduled colonoscopy procedure and for covering the standard costs of the colonoscopy/biopsy/regular medical care as part of the diagnosis of your dog’s disease.

Printable Flyer (PDF)

Variety of Tumors: Assessing Minimally Invasive Tumor Ablation

Title: Thermal ablation of cancer in dogs and cats

Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of treating veterinary patients with minimally invasive tumor ablation technologies including cryoablation and microwave ablation. These methods are growing in the treatment of a variety of cancers in the human medical field, but information in veterinary patients is currently very limited. To date we have completed a study on cryoablation in nasal tumor patients, and this technique has been very successful in reducing tumor volume in nasal tumor patients – although there are no more spots in the formal nasal tumor study, because of this success, we continue to offer this technique as a clinical service to nasal cancer patients, and are expanding the types of cancer that we are evaluating.

Contact: Call 530-752-1393 and ask to speak to the Soft Tissue Surgery scheduling coordinators to schedule an appointment with Dr. Michele Steffey. The coordinators will likely advise you to send your pet's medical records and imaging results for Dr. Steffey's review. If, based on this information, your pet is deemed an appropriate candidate, an appointment will be scheduled.

Participation Requirements: In order to participate in this study, your pet must have **solitary** malignant soft tissue or bony mass **that is deemed amenable to ablation**. Tumor types that MAY be amenable to this treatment include lung tumors, kidney tumors, adrenal tumors, and bone tumors in certain locations. however determination of eligibility is complex and relates to the size of the lesion as well as proximity to/involvement of other important nearby structures. Tumors that are superficial (involving or near to the skin) or that involve the gastrointestinal tract are not amenable to this treatment.

Initial Evaluation for Participation: Evaluation by the V.M.T.H. Small Animal Surgery, Internal Medicine, or Oncology services.

Procedures: If you agree to participate, under general anesthesia, ablation probes will be placed into your pet’s mass under ultrasound guidance and the tumor will be ablated.

Benefits: This treatment method may only be palliative, but it is our hope that in appropriately selected patients, we may improve quality of life as well as longevity.

Owner Responsibilities: The study will cover the cost of the ablation probes and generator. Costs of pre-operative workup, general anesthesia, recommended imaging, hospitalization, and general management of the disease process or any complications that occur during treatment are your responsibility.

Variety of Tumors and Diseases: Improving Operative Detection of Tumors

Title: Fluorescent imaging of cancer

Purpose of Study: Near-infrared fluorescent imaging utilizes special wavelengths of light to identify important structures, and is used in surgery to improve surgical decision making. The fluorescent light is generated by a special contrast agent (a “fluorophore”) that is injected into the patient. When a special light source is used to illuminate the surgical site, any tissue in which this fluorophore is located will glow, aiding the surgeon in identifying the location or extent of disease. Based on early experiments in rodents and human clinical trials, this very sensitive tool has the potential to improve surgical decision-making and improve overall treatment for a wide variety of diseases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of this imaging modality in veterinary patients presenting with naturally occurring neuroendocrine tumors disease processes.

Contact: Call 530-752-1393 and ask to speak to the Soft Tissue Surgery scheduling coordinators to schedule an appointment with Dr. Michele Steffey.

Participation Requirements: Dogs with the following conditions are most likely to benefit from this study: hyperparathyroidism, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, adrenal cancer, thymoma, mammary (breast) cancer, lung cancer, anal sac gland cancer, oral cancer, mast cell tumor. Dogs with severe kidney or liver disease are not eligible to participate.

Initial Evaluation for Participation: Evaluation by the V.M.T.H. Small Animal Surgery, Internal Medicine, or Oncology services.

Procedures: If you agree to participate, the best fluorophore for your pet’s tumor will be administered or intravenously, at a dose and timing considered to be optimal by your attending veterinarian.

Benefits: It is hoped, but is not known if there will be a specific benefit to your individual pet. Fluorescent imaging may or may not improve operative localization and dissection of your pet’s tumor.

Owner Responsibilities: Costs of standard pre-operative workup, general anesthesia, recommended imaging, hospitalization, and general management of your pet’s disease process or any complications that occur during treatment are your responsibility. The cost of the fluorophore and special imaging is covered by the study. There are no risks associated with the imaging itself, as it only involves light; there is no radiation exposure to the patient. The fluorophores used in this study are FDA-approved for use in humans and have been used without complication in our hospital for the past 18 months. The primary risk of this procedure is associated with injection of these drugs is an allergic reaction, which is very rare, but unpredictable in an individual patient (like any other drug reaction, including antibiotics). If an allergic reaction should occur, immediate costs of treatment (immediate supportive medications, support of blood pressure) will be covered by the study; however, the owner will be responsible for any treatment costs for prolonged or severe complications.

On Hold Until Further Notice

Ectopic ureters: Evaluating Laser Ablation as a Treatment Option in Dogs

Title: Evaluation of the Use of Cystoscopic-Guided Laser Ablation in the Treatment of Canine Ureteral Ectopia

Purpose of Study: To evaluate urethral pressure profiles (UPPs) in patients undergoing laser ablation of their ectopic ureters. The goal is to determine if pre-treatment UPP values can help to predict continence rates after laser ablation.