Case Studies In Small Animal

Cardiovascular Medicine

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Echocardiogram 2

Transesophageal Echocardiogram

The PDA was occluded with an Amplatzer Canine Ductal Occluder (ACDO; http://vetstents.com/products/product_sheets/large/ampltaz.pdf). This device is placed via a cardiac catheter that is introduced into a femoral artery and passed via fluoroscopy up the aorta to the PDA. The catheter is initially passed through the PDA into the MPA. Here the first flange is deployed. The catheter is then withdrawn until the flange is caught on the MPA side of the PDA. The remainder of the device is then deployed as the catheter is withdrawn across the narrowed end of the PDA. This leaves the second flange within the PDA and the waste across the narrow end of the PDA. The device is made of nitinol, a metal material that is able to be deformed so that it can be placed within a tube (catheter) and that can then resume its original shape (see picture below) once deployed.

Fluoroscopic images showing the deployment of a similar device (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J5avuKCR9fU) and an angiogram following successful deployment of that device (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MpBgcZ1FCRk) can be seen on the author's site on YouTube.

Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.