Case Studies In Small Animal

Cardiovascular Medicine

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Case 11

Two-dimensional Echocardiograms

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This is a right parasternal long-axis view of the four chambers of the heart. The left ventricular (LV) chamber appears to be enlarged. The left atrium (LA) is even larger. The right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA) may also be enlarged but not to the degree of the left heart. The septal leaflet of the mitral valve is markedly thickened and the pulmonary vein (PV) seen entering the left atrium is markedly distended. The arrow points to a structure that originates from the mitral valve and projects back into the left atrium

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This is a close-up view of the upper portion of the left ventricle (LV), lower portion of the left atrium (LA), and mitral valve. The arrow points to the same abnormality as above.

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A left apical four-chamber view is shown here. All four chambers are again enlarged but the left heart size predominates. There appears to be a defect in the atrial septum (arrow).

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In this cross-sectional view of the base of the heart, the markedly enlarged left atrium (when compared to the size of the aorta) can again be appreciated. The caudal vena cava (CaVC) can be seen entering the right atrium (RA). There again appears to be a defect in the interatrial septum. Since it has now been seen on two views, it is most likely real, but we can verify that with color flow Doppler. What could cause that?


Correct Quiz


Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.