Case Studies In Small Animal

Cardiovascular Medicine

Home Up .    Radiographs ECG 2D Echo M-Mode Color Flow Doppler Liver Diagnosis

Case 11

M-mode Echocardiogram

mmode.jpg (31201 bytes)

This M-mode echocardiogram demonstrates that this dog's left ventricular function is hyperdynamic (i.e., the walls move more than normal). The left ventricular end-diastolic diameter is 4.7 cm (normal is approximately 3 cm for this size dog) and the end-systolic diameter is 2.3 cm. (normal is in the 1.8 to 2.2  cm range, meaning that 2.3 is indistinguishable from normal). This means the interventricular septum and the left ventricular free wall moved 2.4 cm closer together from the end of diastole to the end of systole (normal would be about 1 cm). To standardize this measure for all dogs, the amount of ventricular wall motion is divided by the end-diastolic diameter to create a percent change in diameter from the end of diastole to the end of systole. This is called the shortening fraction (SF) which is increased in this dog to 51%.


Correct Quiz


Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.