Case Studies In Small Animal
Right parasternal long-axis view
Electronic calipers are measuring the thickness of the right ventricular free wall (15 mm). RV - right ventricular cavity; LV - left ventricular cavity; LA - left atrial cavity; RA - right atrial cavity.
Right parasternal short-axis view at the ventricles
Right parasternal short-axis view at the base
The electronic calipers are measuring the orifice size of the pulmonic valve annulus, which is small. RVOT - right ventricular outflow tract; Ao - aorta; MPA - main pulmonary artery.
©Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.