Case Studies In Small Animal

Cardiovascular Medicine

Home Up .    Radiographs ECG 2D Echo M-Mode Color Flow Doppler Diagnosis

Case 17

M-Mode Echocardiogram

mmode.jpg (31076 bytes)

This M-mode echocardiogram is taken across the center of the left ventricle (LV) between the papillary muscles while the dog's breath was held (mouth closed and nares occluded). The LV chamber diastolic diameter is increased (3.3 cm; normal = 2.5 cm) as is the end-systolic diameter (2.2 cm; normal = 1.5 cm). As a result the shortening fraction is normal (33%). Normal wall motion (i.e., shortening fraction) coupled with an enlarged chamber means the left ventricle is pumping an increased quantity of blood. This occurs when there is mitral or aortic regurgitation or a left-to-right shunt beyond the mitral valve.


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Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.