Case Studies In Small Animal

Cardiovascular Medicine

Home Up .    Radiographs ECG 2D Echo Diagnosis

Case 18

Echocardiograms

Right parasternal long-axis view

echo.jpg (28932 bytes)

LA = left atrium; RV = right ventricle; LV = left ventricle; RA = right atrium.

Right parasternal long-axis view (increased gain)

echo2.jpg (33511 bytes)

In the above view, there are flocculated densities, especially apparent in the left atrium (LA). In real time, these densities swirled within the chambers (see video below). RV = right ventricle; LV = left ventricle; RA = right atrium.

Right parasternal short-axis basilar view

echo3.jpg (33309 bytes)

The aorta is in the middle of this view with the left atrium (LA) below and to the left and the right atrium (RA) above.  

Video of a two-dimensional echocardiogram from another cat with a similar disease showing spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (click on video icon)

Quiz

Correct Quiz

Ultrasound images of whole blood in a container flowing at different velocities

                0 cm/second                                    5 cm/second                                        20 cm/second

Blood must flow at a velocity >10 cm/second to prevent red cell aggregation.

From: Diane Fatkin, MBBS, BSc(Med), FRACP; Thanasis Loupas, PhD; Joyce Low, PhD; ; Michael Feneley, MD, FRACP, FACC: Inhibition of Red Cell Aggregation Prevents Spontaneous Echocardiographic Contrast Formation in Human Blood. Circulation. 1997;96:889-896.

Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.