Case Studies In Small Animal
A four-chamber view taken from the left apical position. This shows an extremely thickened right ventricular free wall (to your left of the RV label). The subendocardium of the right ventricle is severely hyperechoic suggesting that this region is damaged and fibrotic. RV - right ventricular chamber; LV - left ventricular chamber; RA - right atrial chamber; LA - left atrial chamber.
This is a cross-sectional view from the right parasternal position. It again shows the severely thickened right ventricular free wall on top and the hyperechoic subendocardium. Labels as above.
This is a view of the pulmonic valve (between the right ventricular outflow tract [RVOT] and the main pulmonary artery [MPA]). The cusps of the valve are thicker than normal. This frame is taken during systole. The cusps of the valve are immobile as they have not opened.
This view of the tricuspid valve shows long and thickened chordae tendineae (immediately below the RV label). RA - right atrium.
This is a view of the atrial septum taken from the right side of the dog. There are two walls of the atrial septum separated by a hole (arrow).
©Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.