Case Studies In Small Animal

Cardiovascular Medicine

Home Up .    Radiographs 2D Echo M-Mode Color Flow Doppler Diagnosis

Case 8

Two-dimensional echocardiograms

echolong.jpg (21245 bytes)

This right parasternal long-axis view shows the four chambers of the heart in diastole. The diastolic diameter of the left ventricle (LV) is increased to 21 mm (normal is up to 17 mm). The right ventricular (RV) free wall is severely thickened (immediately above the RV label). The left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) are enlarged.


echocross.jpg (19920 bytes)

This right parasternal cross-sectional view shows the right ventricular (RV) chamber to be enlarged and the right ventricular free wall to be thickened. There is an array of abnormal chordal structures emanating from the papillary muscles in the left ventricular (LV) chamber.


echobase.jpg (21736 bytes)

The left atrium (LA) is moderately enlarged when compared to the size of the aorta (Ao) in this right parasternal cross-sectional view of the base of the heart. The pulmonic valve can be seen between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the main pulmonary artery (PA) and is closed in this diastolic frame.


echoaorta.jpg (21625 bytes)

This right parasternal long-axis view of the left ventricle (LV) and aorta shows a region of discontinuity between the upper portion of the interventricular septum and the base of the aorta.


echores.jpg (16041 bytes)

This close-up view of the base of the interventricular septum again shows a defect (arrow) between the base of the septum and the root of the aorta.


Correct Quiz


Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.