Case Studies In Small Animal

Cardiovascular Medicine

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Case 9

Two-dimensional Echocardiograms

echolong.jpg (22149 bytes)

This right parasternal long-axis view of the heart shows that the left atrium (LA) is larger than the left ventricle (LV). A defect can be seen in the mitral valve and the leaflet tips "flail" back into the left atrium. RV; right ventricle, RA; right atrium.


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The left atrium is markedly enlarged in this right parasternal cross-sectional view of the base of the heart. The enlarged left auricle projects cranially (to the right of the body of the left atrium [LA] in the picture). Normally one can fit about 2 to 3 aortic (AO) cross sections into the left atrium in this view. This left atrium would hold about 9 to 10 aortic cross-sections.


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This is a left apical four-chamber view. Once again the massive left atrial (LA) enlargement can be appreciated. The mitral valve leaflets do not appose. LV; left ventricle, RV; right ventricle.


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This is a view of the heart taken from the right side showing the edges of the mitral valve leaflets in cross-section. The leaflets are partially opened during atrial systole in this frame leaving a mitral valve orifice (MVO). The leaflet edges are uniformly thickened around the circumference of the orifice. LVOT; left ventricular outflow tract, RV; right ventricle.

Video of the mitral valve from another dog with the same disease

The inner 50% of the septal (anterior) leaflet of the mitral valve is markedly thickened. The portion of the leaflet tip protrudes beyond the point where it should coapt with the mural leaflet. This is another example of mitral valve flail. In addition, the diseased portion of the leaflet protrudes backward into the left atrium. This is an example of severe mitral valve prolapse.


Correct Quiz



Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.

Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.