Case Studies In Small Animal

Cardiovascular Medicine

Home Up Tricuspid Atresia St. Paul's Left Bundle MR Schematics

Mitral Regurgitation Schematics


EDD - end-diastolic diameter; ESD - end-systolic diameter; SF - shortening fraction (EDD - ESD / EDD) ; WTd - diastolic wall thickness; WTs - systolic wall thickness; EDV - end-diastolic volume; ESV - end-systolic volume; TSV - total stroke volume (EDV - ESV); FSV - forward stroke volume; RSV - regurgitant stroke volume

Mild mitral regurgitation - increased contractility


Mild mitral regurgitation - mild eccentric hypertrophy


Moderate mitral regurgitation


Severe mitral regurgitation


Severe mitral regurgitation with mild to moderate myocardial failure


Wall stress - Volume Loop from Dog with MR


Mark D. Kittleson, D.V.M., Ph.D. All rights reserved.