Reference Literature

Artz, A. L., S. Szabo, et al. (2001). "Aortic valve endocarditis with paravalvular abscesses caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20(8): 587-8.

Brew, S. D., L. L. Perrett, et al. (1999). "Human exposure to Brucella recovered from a sea mammal." Vet Rec 144(17): 483.

Baker, A. S., K. L. Ruoff, et al. (1998). "Isolation of Mycoplasma species from a patient with seal finger." Clin Infect Dis 27(5): 1168-70.

Cates, M. B., L. Kaufman, et al. (1986). "Blastomycosis in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin." J Am Vet Med Assoc 189(9): 1148-50

Center for Disease Control (2001) http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/brucellosis_g.htm

Chastel, C., O. Masure, et al. (1975). "[The student, the cetacean and swine-fever. A minor epidemic after dissection of a globicephale]." Nouv Presse Med 4(24): 1803-5.

Cosivi, O., J. M. Grange, et al. (1998). "Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries." Emerg Infect Dis 4(1): 59-70.

Haebler R., Moeller R. B.., Pathobiology of selected marine mammal diseases, in Couch, J. A., J. W. Fournie, et al. (1993). Pathobiology of marine and estuarine organisms. Boca Raton, CRC Press.

Eadie, P. A., T. C. Lee, et al. (1990). "Seal finger in a wildlife ranger." Ir Med J 83(3): 117-8.

Flowers, D. J. (1970). "Human infection due to Mycobacterium marinum after a dolphin bite." J Clin Pathol 23(6): 475-7.

Forshaw, D. and G. R. Phelps (1991). "Tuberculosis in a captive colony of pinnipeds." J Wildl Dis 27(2): 288-95.

Godfroid, J. (2002). "Brucellosis in wildlife." Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epix 21(2):277-286.

Gulland, F. M., M. Koski, et al. (1996). "Leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded along the central California coast, 1981-1994." J Wildl Dis 32(4): 572-80.

Hartley, J. W. and D. Pitcher (2002). "Seal finger--tetracycline is first line." J Infect 45(2): 71-5.

Hicks, B. D. and G. A. Worthy (1987). "Sealpox in captive grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and their handlers." J Wildl Dis 23(1): 1-6.

Migaki, G., Jones, Mycotic disease of Marine Mammals in Howard, E. B. (1983). Pathobiology of marine mammal diseases. Boca Raton, Fla., CRC Press.

Kinsel, M. J., J. R. Boehm, et al. (1997). "Fatal Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae septicemia in a captive Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens)." J Zoo Wildl Med 28(4): 494-7.

Osterhaus, A. D., G. F. Rimmelzwaan, et al. (2000). "Influenza B virus in seals." Science 288(5468): 1051-3.

Ryncarz, R. E., Heasley, E.C., Babinchak, T.J. (1999). "The Clinical Spectrum of Nodular Lymphangitis." Hospital Physician: 63-66.

Sargent, E. (1980). "Tetracycline for seal finger." J Am Med Assoc 244(5): 437.

Smith, A. W., E. S. Berry, et al. (1998). "In vitro isolation and characterization of a calicivirus causing a vesicular disease of the hands and feet." Clin Infect Dis 26(2): 434-9.

Smith, A. W., D. E. Skilling, et al. (1998). "Calicivirus emergence from ocean reservoirs: zoonotic and interspecies movements." Emerg Infect Dis 4(1): 13-20.

Smith, A. W., N. A. Vedros, et al. (1978). "Hazards of disease transfer from marine mammals to land mammals: review and recent findings." J Am Vet Med Assoc 173(9): 1131-3.

Stamper, M. A., F. M. Gulland, et al. (1998). "Leptospirosis in rehabilitated Pacific harbor seals from California." J Wildl Dis 34(2): 407-10.

Sweeney, J. C. and S. H. Ridgway (1975). "Common diseases of small cetaceans." J Am Vet Med Assoc 167(7): 533-40.

Thompson, P. J., D. V. Cousins, et al. (1993). "Seals, seal trainers, and mycobacterial infection." Am Rev Respir Dis 147(1): 164-7.

Tryland, M. (2000). "Zoonoses of artic marine mammals." Infectious Disease Review 2: 55-64.

Webster, R. G., J. Geraci, et al. (1981). "Conjunctivitis in human beings caused by influenza A virus of seals." N Engl J Med 304(15): 911.

Home ] Background ] Recent Findings ] Safety Brochure ] Info for Physicians ] Links ] [ References ]