Many important publications have been produced as a result of our work with marine mammals. We have organized them into three sections and you can browse them below: 

Marine Mammals | Pathogens | Environment  


Photo by Ian Markham


Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.Girard, Y., C. K Johnson; H. M Fritz; K. Shapiro; A. Packham; A. Melli; D. Carlson-Bremer; F. Gulland; D. Rejmanek; P. A Conrad. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, in press. 2016.

Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Shapiro, K., Miller, M.A., Packham, A.E., Aguilar, B., Conrad, P.A., VanWormer, E., and M. J. Murray. Parasitology, In press. 2016.


Epidemiology and pathology of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Daphne Carlson-Bremer, Kathleen M. Colegrove, Frances M. D. Gulland, Patricia A. Conrad, Jonna A. K. Mazet, Christine K. Johnson. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 51(2): [Epub ahead of print]. 2015.


Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from central California. Adell, A., Smith, W. Shapiro, K., Melli, A., and P. Conrad. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80(24):7732-7740. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02922-14. 2014 

Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella shed by captive and free-range California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Berardi, T., Shapiro, K., Byrne, B.A., and W. Miller. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 45(3):527-533.  2014.

Surveillance for zoonotic and selected pathogens in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from central California. Greig, D.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Smith, W.A., Conrad, P.A., Field, C.L., Fleetwood, M., Harvey, J.T., Ip, H.S., Jang, S., Packham, A., Wheeler, E., Hall, A.J. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 111:93-106. 2014.


A new pathogen transmission mechanism in the ocean: the case of sea otter exposure to the land-parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Mazzillo, F.M., Shapiro, K., and M.W. Silver. PLoS ONE, 18; 8(12): e82477. 2013. 

Dynamics of Vibrio with virulence genes detected in pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California: implications for marine mammal health.  Hughes, S.N., Greig, D.J., Miller, W.A., Bryne, B.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Harvey, J.T. Microbial Ecology. 65 DOI 10.1007/s00248-013-0188-1. 2013.


Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus). Carlson-Bremer, D.; Johnson, C.; Miller, R.; Gulland, F.; Conrad, P.; Wasmuth, J.; Colegrove, K. and Grigg. M. Journal of Parasitology 98(2): 347- 354. 2012.

Structure and mechanism of diet specialization: testing models of individual variation in resource use with sea otters. Tinker M.T., Guimarães P.R., Novak M., Marquitti F.M.D., L. B.J., Staedler M., Bentall G. & Estes, J.A. Ecology Letters 15(5) 475-483. 2012.

Diagnosis and treatment of Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis in a free-ranging California sea lion. Carlson-Bremer, D.P., Gulland, F.M.D., Johnson, C.K., Colegrove, K.M., and Van Bonn, W.G. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 240(3): 324-328. 2012.

Southern Sea Otters as Sentinels for Land-Sea Pollution. Chapter 23. In. Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health. Jessup, D.A, Miller, M.A., editors: A. Aguirre, R. S. Ostfeld and P. Daszak. Oxford University Press, NY, 10016. 2012.

Temporal association between land-based runoff events and California sea otter (Enhydra lutrisnereis) protozoal mortalities. Shapiro K, Miller M, Mazet J. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48(2): 394-404. 2012.


Discovery of three novel coccidian parasites infecting California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) with evidence of sexual replication and interspecies pathogenicity. Colegrove, K, Grigg, M.; Carlson-Bremer, D.; Miller, R.; Gulland, F. ; Ferguson, D.; Rejmanek, D.; Barr, B.; Nordhausen, R.; Melli, A.; Conrad, P.  Journal of Parasitology, 97(5): 868-877. 2011. 


A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. Miller, M.A., Conrad, P.A., Harris, M., Hatfield, B., Langlois, G., Jessup, D.A., Magargal, S.L., Packham, A.E. Toy-Choutka, S., Melli, A.C., Murray, M.A., Gulland, F.M., and Grigg, M.E. Veterinary Parasitology 172(3-4): 183-94. 2010.

Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff. Miller M.A., Byrne B., Jang S., Dodd E., Dorfmeier E., Harris M., Ames J., Paradies D., Worcester K., Jessup D.A., Miller W. Vet. Res. (2010) 41: 01. 2010. 

Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates. Wendte J.M, Miller M.A, Nandra A.K., Peat S.M., Crosbie P.R., Conrad P.A., Grigg M.E., Vet. Parasitol. 169(1-2): 37-44. 2010.


Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system. Johnson C.K, Tinker M.T., Estes J.A., Conrad P.A., Staedler M., Miller M.A, Jessup D.A., Mazet J.K. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.106: 2242-7. 2009.

The effect of rehabilitation of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) on antimicrobial resistance of commensal Escherichia coli. Stoddard, R.A., E.R. Atwill, P.A. Conrad, B.A. Byrne, S. Jang, J. Lawrence, B. McCowan, and F.M.D. Gulland. Veterinary Microbiology. 133(3)264-271. 2009.

Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Miller M.A., Barr B.C., Nordhausen R., James E.R., Magargal S.L., Murray M., Conrad P.A.,Toy-Choutka S., Jessup D.A., Grigg M.E. Int. J. Parasitol. 39(12): 1363-72. 2009.


Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella spp. from marine animals in the Channel Islands, California. Stoddard, R.A., R.L. DeLong, B.A. Byrne, S. Jang, and Frances M. Gulland. Disease of Aquatic Organisms. 81(1)5-11. 2008.

Risk factors for infection with pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria in northern elephant seals in California. Stoddard, R.A., E.R. Atwill, F.M.D. Gulland, M.A. Miller, H.A. Dabritz, B.A. Byrne, D.M. Paradies, K.R. Worcester, S.S. Jang, J. Lawrence, and P.A. Conrad. Public Health Reports. 123(3):360-370. 2008.

Tissue cyst-forming coccidia of marine mammals, Chapter 40. Miller, M.A.. (Eds.) M. E. Fowler and E. Miller. Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Current Therapy. Volume 6. Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, MO. Pp.319-340. 2008.

Transplacental toxoplasmosis in a southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Miller M.A., Conrad P.A., James E.R., Packham A.E., Toy-Choutka S., Murray M.J., Jessup D.A., Grigg M.E. Vet. Parasitol. 153: 12-18. 2008.


Campylobacter insulaenigrae isolated from Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. Stoddard, R.A., W.G. Miller, J. E. Foley, J. Lawrence, F.M.D. Gulland, P.A. Conrad, and B.A. Byrne. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73(6): 1729-1735. 2007. 

One health, one medicine: Sea otters in a dirty ocean. Jessup D.A., Miller M.A., Kreuder-Johnson C., Conrad P.A., Tinker T., Estes J., Mazet J.K.. JAVMA. 231: 1648-1652. 2007.


Transmission of Toxoplasma: Clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. Conrad, P.A., M.A. Miller, C. Kreuder, E.R. James, J. Mazet , H. Dabritz, D. A. Jessup, F. Gulland and M.E. Grigg. International Journal for Parsitology 35:1125-1168. 2005.

Evaluation of cardiac lesions and risk factors associated with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Kreuder, C., M. A. Miller, L.J. Lowenstine, P.A. Conrad, T.E. Carpenter, D. A. Jessup and J.A.K. Mazet. American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(2):289-99. 2005.

Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California. Stoddard, R.A., F.M.D. Gulland, E.R. Atwill, J. Lawrence, S. Jang, and P.A. Conrad. Emerging Infectious Diseases.  11(12), available from  2005.


The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) as a sentinel of marine ecosystem health. Jessup, D.A., M. Miller, J. Ames, M. Harris, P. Conrad C. Kreuder and J.A.K. Mazet. 2004. Ecology and Health. 1(3): 239-245. 2004.

An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. M. A. Miller , M. E. Grigg , C. Kreuder , E. R. James , A. C. Melli , P. R. Crosbie , D. A. Jessup , J. C. Boothroyd , D. Brownstein and P. A. Conrad. International Journal for Parasitology 34(3):275-284. 2004.


Clinical pathological values and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters. Hanni, K.D., J.A.K. Mazet, F.M.D. Gulland, J. Estes, M. Staedler, M.J. Murray, D.A. Jessup. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 39(4). 2003.

Patterns of mortality in the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris) from 1998-2001. Kreuder, C., M. Miller, D. Jessup, L. Lowenstine M.D. Harris, J. Ames, T.E. Carpenter, P.A. Conrad, J.K. Mazet. Journal of Wildlife Disease 39(3): 495-509. 2003. 

Good medicine for conservation: Comments, corrections and connections. Jessup, D.A. Conservation Biology 17(3) 1-4. 2003.

Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: A case study of Southern sea otters. Gerber L.R., M.T. Tinker, D.F. Doak, J.E. Estes, D.A. Jessup. Ecological Applications 21: 2917-2932. 2003.

Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and butyltins in southern sea otters and their prey: Implications for PCB metabolism. Kannan, K., H. Nakata, N. Kajiwara, M. Watanabe, N.J. Thomas, D.A. Jessup and S. Kanabe. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(1): 49-56. 2003.

Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters. Hanni, K.D, Mazet, J.A.K, Gulland, F.M.D., Estes, J., Staedler, M., Murray, M., Miller, M., Jessup, D.A. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39(4):837-850. 2003.

Final Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Portland, Oregon. 165pp. 2003.

Causes of Mortality in California Sea Otters During Periods of Population Growth and Decline. Estes J.A., B.H. Hatfield, K. Ralls, J. Ames. Marine Mammal Science, 19(1):198-216. 2003.

Patterns of mortality in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from 1998-2001. Kreuder, C., M. Miller, D. Jessup, L. Lowenstine, M. Harris, J. Ames, T. Carpenter, P. Conrad, J. Mazet. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39:495-509. 2003. 


Population biology of the California sea otter. Estes, J.A., M.T. Tinker, T.M. Williams, D. Jessup, A. Johnson. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Newsletter. 2002. 

Programs monitoring the health and conservation of marine mammals and their ecosystems. Aguirre, A.A., T.M. Ohara, T.R. Spraker and D.A. Jessup. IN Aguirre, A.A., R.S. Ostfeld, C.A. House, G.M. Tabor and M.C. Pearl (eds.). Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health Practice. Oxford University Press, New York. 2002.

Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Miller, M.A.,I.A. Gardner, D. Paradies, K. Worcester, D. Jessup, E. Dodd, M. Harris, J. Ames, A. Packham, P.A. Conrad. International Journal of Parasitology 32:997-1006. 2002.

Validation of a cell culture bioassay for detection of petroleum exposure in mink (Mustela vison) as a model for detection in sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Ziccardi, M., J. Mazet,I. Gardner, W. Boyce, M. Denison. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63:963-968. 2002.


Effects of petroleum on mink applied as a model for reproductive success in sea otters. Mazet, J.A.K., I Gardner, D. Jessup and L. Lowenstine. 2001. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 37(4):686-692. 2001.

Isolation and characterization of Sarcocystis from brain tissue of a free-living southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) with fatal meningoencephalitis. Miller, M. A., P. R. Crosbie, K. Sverlow, K. Hanni, B.C. Barr, N. Kock, M. J. Murray, L. J. Lowenstine, and P.A. Conrad. Parasitology Research 87:252-257. 2001.

Sea Otter, In: California’s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report. VanBlaricom, G.R., J.A. Ames, M.D. Harris, and R.A. Hardy. Leet, W.S., C.M. Dewees, R. Klingbeil, and E.J. Larson, editors. Calif. Dept. of Fish and Game. 536-540pp. 2001.

Isolation and characterization of protozoal parasites from a pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) with meningoencephalitis. Miller, M.A., Sverlow K., Crosbie P.R., Barr B.C., Lowenstine L.J., Gulland F.M., Packham A.E. Conrad P.A. J. Parasitol. 87: 816-822. 2001.


Changes in hematologic and clinical chemistry values following petroleum product exposure on mink as models for sea otters. Mazet, J.A.K., I. Gardner, D. Jessup, and L. Lowenstine. A.J.V.R. 61(10)1197-1203. 2000.

Evaluation of changes in hematologic and clinical biochemical values after exposure to petroleum products in mink (Mustela vison) as a model for assessment of sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Mazet, J.,I. Gardner, D. Jessup, L. Lowenstine, and W. Boyce. American Journal of Veterinary Research 61:1197-1203. 2000. 


The application of immuno-assays for the serological detection of morbilivirus exposure in free-ranging harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from the west coast of the United States. Ham-Lamme K.D., D.P. King, B.C. Taylor, C. House, D.A. Jessup, P.K. Yochem, M.D. Gulland, D.A. Ferrick, J.L. Stott. Marine Mammal Science 15(2):601-608. 1999.

Measurement of serum immunoglobulin G concentration in killer whales and sea otters by radial immunodiffusion. Taylor B.C., R.M. Bothridge, D.A. Jessup, J.L. Stott. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 1999.


Oiled wildlife care for sea otters and other marine animals in California: A government, private sector, not-for-profit cooperative. Jessup D.A., J.A.K. Mazet, J. Ames. Endangered Species Update 13(12)53-56. Reprinted in AAZK Crisis Management Resource Notebook. 1998.

Focusing on sea otters: The Santa Cruz oiled wildlife veterinary care and research center. Jessup D.A., J.A.K. Mazet. Fifth International Effects of Oil on Wildlife Proceedings, pp 181-184. Reprinted in Proceedings of the International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council. 1998.


Oiled wildlife care for sea otters in California: A government, private sector, not-for-profit partnership. Jessup D. and J. Mazet. California and the World Ocean. State of California Resources Agency. 1997.

Sea Otter, Enhydra lutris, Mortalities in California, 1968 through 1993. Pattison, C.A., M.D. Harris and F.E. Wendell. Calif. Fish and Game, Admin. Report 97-5. 1997. 


Special Issue: Conservation and Management of the Southern Sea Otter. Watson, J. (editor). Endangered Species Update 13(12). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 91pp. 1996. 

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Role of cats in Toxoplasma transmission and disease. Parasitoses and Vectorborne Diseases of Cats. Fritz, H.M. and P.A. Conrad. (Frederic Beugnet, Lenaig Halos, eds) Merial-Remy Ventura Horta, FERREOL, Lyon, France. In Press for 2015. 


Individual Subject Meta-Analysis of Parameters for Giardia duodenalis Shedding in Animal Experimental Models. Adell, A.D., Miller, W.A., Harvey, D.J., Van Wormer, E., Wuertz, S. and Conrad, P.A. Biomed Research International 2014, 476142.  2014.


Individual subject metaanalysis of parameters for Cryptosporidium parvum shedding and diarrhoea in animal experimental models. Adell, A.D., Miller, W.A., Harvey,. D.J., VanWormer, E., Wuertz, S. and Conrad, P.A. Epidemiology and Infection Journal, 16:1-17. 2012.

Transcriptomic analysis of toxoplasma development reveals many novel functions and structures specific to sporozoites and oocysts. Fritz, H.; Buchholz, K.; Durbin-Johnson, B.; Rocke, D., Conrad, P. and Boothroyd, J. PloS ONE 7(2): e29998. 2012.

Methods to produce and safely work with large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and bradyzoite cysts. Fritz, H.; Packham, A.; Barr, B.; Melli, A and P.A. Conrad. J Microbial Methods 88(1): 47-52. 2012. 


The Trickle-down effect: How cat pathogens harm sea otters. In focus: The impacts of free-roaming cats. Jessup, D.A, Miller, M.A. Wildl. Profess. 6(1): 64-66. 2011.


Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California. Rejmanek D., Miller M.A., Grigg M.E., Crosbie P.R., Conrad P.A. Vet. Parasitol. 170(1-2): 20-9. 2010.

Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasitesSarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii. Wendte J.M., Miller M.A., Lambourn D.M., Magargal S.L., Jessup D.A., Grigg M.E. PLoS Genet. 6(12): e1001261. 2010.


Prevalence and risk factors associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from central California. Rejmanek D., Vanwormer E., Miller M.A., Mazet J.A., Nichelason A.E., Melli A.C., Packham A.E., Jessup D.A., Conrad P.A Vet. Parasitol. 166(1-2): 8-14. 2009.

Surface properties of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres. Shapiro K, Largier J, Mazet J, Bernt W, Ell J, Melli A, Conrad P. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 1185-1191. 2009. 


Evaluation of two Toxoplasma gondii serologic tests used in a serosurvey of domestic cats in California. Haydee A. Dabritz, Ian A. Gardner, Melissa A. Miller, Michael R. Lappin, E. Robert Atwill, Andrea E. Packham, Ann C. Melli, and Patricia A. Conrad. Submitted to Journal of Parasitology, July 2006.

Evaluation of methods for improved detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus). Miller W.A., Gardner I.A., Atwill E.R., Leutenegger C.M., Miller M.A., Hedrick R.P., Melli A.C., Barnes N.M. Conrad P.A. J. Microbiol. Methods. 65: 367-379. 2006.


New genotypes and factors associated with Cryptosporidium detection in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast. Miller, W.A., M. A. Miller, I. A. Gardner, E. R. Atwill, M. Harris, J. Ames, D. A. Jessup, A. C. Melli, D. Paradies, K. Worcester, P. Olin, N.M. Barnes and P.A. Conrad. International Journal for Parasitology. 35(10):1103-13. 2005.

Clams (Corbicula fluminea) as bioindicators of fecal contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in freshwater ecosystems in California. Miller, W.A., E.R. Atwill, I.A. Gardner, M.A. Miller, H.M. Fritz, R.P. Hedrick, A.C. Melli, N.M. Barnes and P.A. Conrad. International Journal of Parasitology 35(6):673-84.


Molecular and bioassay-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst uptake by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Arkush, K.D., M.A. Miller, C.M. Leutenegger, I.A. Gardner, A.E. Packham, A.R. Heckeroth, A.M. Tenter, B.C. Barr and P.A. Conrad. International Journal for Parasitology 33(10):1087-1097.

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Sarcocystis neurona contamination in wild California mussels Mytilus californianus. Lauren Michaels, Daniel Rejmanek, Beatriz Aguilar, Patricia Conrad, and Karen Shapiro. Parasitology, In press 2016.


Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by marine snails demonstrate a novel mechanism for transmission of terrestrial zoonotic pathogens in coastal ecosystems.Krusor, C., Smith, W. A., Tinker, M. T., Silver, M. S., Conrad, P. A., and K. Shapiro. Environmental Microbiology.17(11):4527–4537. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12927. 2015.

Effects of transparent exopolymer particles and suspended particles on the survival ofSalmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in seawater. Davidson, M., Berardi, T., Aguilar, B., Byrne, B., and K. Shapiro. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. doi: . 2015.


Spatial differences in thermal structure and variability within a small bay: interplay of diurnal wind and tides. Bonicelli, J., C. Moffat, S. A. Navarrete and J. L. Largier and F.J. Tapia. Continental Shelf Research, 88:72-80. 2014.

Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoal pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale, model-based approach. Daniels, M.E., J. Hogan, W.A. Smith, S.C. Oates, M.A. Miller, D. Hardin, K. Shapiro, M. Los Huertos, P.A. Conrad, C. Dominik, and F.G.R. Watson. Science of The Total Environment, 493:1036–1046. 2014.

Aquatic polymers can drive pathogen transmission in coastal ecosystems. Shapiro, K., C. Krusor, F. F. M. Mazzillo, P. A. Conrad, J. L. Largier, J. A. K. Mazet, and M. W. Silver. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 281:20141287. 2014.

Marine ecology: Marine slime ferries parasite. Shapiro et al., Nature 514, 277-277, doi:10.1038/514277c. 2014.

Surveillance for Toxoplasma gondii in California mussels reveals transmission of atypical genotypes from land to sea. Karen Shapiro, Elzabeth VanWormer, Beatriz Aguilar, and Patricia A. Conrad. Environmental Microbiology doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12685. [Epub ahead of print]. 2014.

Using molecular epidemiology to track Toxoplasma gondii from terrestrial carnivores to marine hosts: implications for public health and conservation. VanWormer, E, Miller, MA, Conrad, PA, Grigg, ME, Rejmanek, DR, Carpenter, TE, and JAK Mazet. 2014. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases,8(5): e2852. 2014. 


Lateral Structure of Tidal Asymmetry in Vertical Mixing and its Impact on Exchange Flow in a Coastal Plain Estuary. Basdurak, N. B., A. Valle-Levinson & P. Cheng. Continental Shelf Research, 64(1):20-32, DOI: 10.1016/j.csr.2013.05.005. 2013. 

Tidal variability of lateral advection in a coastal plain estuary. Basdurak, N. B. & A. Valle-Levinson. Continental Shelf Research, 61-62:85-97, DOI: 10.1016/j.csr.2013.04.026. 2013.

Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands. Hogan, J., Daniels, E. M., Watson, F. G., Oates, C. S., Miller A.M., Conrad, P. A., Shapiro, K., Hardin, D., Dominik, C., Melli, A., Jessup, D. A., and W. A., Miller. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 79(6) 1859-65. 2013.

Inner shelf intrusions of offshore water in an upwelling system affect coastal connectivity. Nidzieko, N. J. and J. L. Largier. Geophysical Research Letters, 40 (20), 5423–5428, doi:10.1002/2013GL056756. 2013.

Association of zoonotic pathogens with fresh, estuarine, and marine macroaggregates. Shapiro, K., Miller, W.A. Silver, M.W. Odagiri, O. Largier, J.L., Conrad P.A., and J.A.K. Mazet. Microbial Ecology. 65(4): 928-33. 2013.

Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human-animal-environment interface. VanWormer, E., Fritz, H, Shapiro, K., J.A.K. Mazet, and P.A. Conrad. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 36: 217-231. 2013.

Toxoplasma gondii, Source to Sea: Higher Contribution of Domestic Felids to Terrestrial Parasite Loading Despite Lower Infection Prevalence. VanWormer, Elizabeth, Patricia A. Conrad, Melissa A. Miller, Ann C. Melli, Tim E. Carpenter & Jonna A. K. Mazet. EcoHealth 10(3):277-289. 2013. 


Proteomic analysis of fractionated Toxoplasma oocysts reveals clues to their environmental resistance. Fritz, H.; Bowyer, P.; Bogyo, M.; Conrad, P.; Boothroyd, J. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29955. 2012.

Hydrodynamics. Largier, J. L. In: Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology.  A. Hastings and L. Gross (Eds.), University of California Press, pp 357-364. 2012.

The coastal boundary layer: Predictable current structure decreases alongshore transport and alters scales of dispersal. Nickols, K. J., B. Gaylord & J. L. Largier. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 464:17-35, doi: 10.3354/meps09875. 2012. 

Prevalence, Environmental Loading, and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Domestic and Wild Animals along the Central California Coast. Oates, S.C., Miller, M.A., Hardin, D., Conrad, P.A., Melli, A., Jessup, D.A., Dominik, C., Roug, A., Tinker, M.T., Miller, W.A. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78(24): 8762–8772. 2012.

Seasonal variability of turbid river plumes off central Chile based on high-resolution MODIS imagery. Saldias, G. S., M. Sobarzo, J. Largier, C. Moffat and R. Letelier. Remote Sensing of Environment, 123, 220-233. 2012.

Association of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts with fresh, estuarine and marine macroaggregates. Shapiro, K., Silver, M. W., Largier, J., Conrad, P.A., and J.Mazet. Limnology and Oceanography 56(2): 449-456. 2012. 

Epidemiology and potential land-sea transfer of enteric bacterial pathogens from terrestrial to marine species in the Monterey Bay region of California. Oates S.C., Miller M.A., Byrne B.A., Chouicha N., Hardin D., Jessup D.A, Dominik C., Roug A., Schriewer , A., Jang S.S., Miller W.A. J. Wildl. Dis. 48(3): 654-68. 2012. 

Longitudinal Poisson regression to evaluate Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicator bacteria epidemiology in coastal California wetlands. Hogan, J.N., Daniels, M.E., Watson, F.G., Conrad, P.A., Oates, S.C., Miller, M.A., Hardin, D., Byrne, B.A., Dominik, C., Melli, A., Jessup, D.A. and Miller, W.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(10): 3606-13. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00578-12. 2012.


Bacteroidales as a predictor of pathogens in surface waters of the central California coast. Schriewer, A.; Miller, W.; Byrne, B.; Miller, M.; Conrad, P.; Hardin, D.; Yang, H.; Oates, S.; Chouicha, N.; Melli, A.; Jessup, D.; and Wuertz, S. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76:5802-5814. 2010.

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and surrogate microspheres in water using ultrafiltration and capsule filtration. Shapiro K, Mazet J, Schriewer A Wuertz S, Fritz H, Miller W, Largier J, Conrad P. Water Research, 44: 893-903. 2010. 

Effect of estuarine wetland degradation on transport of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from land to sea. Shapiro K, Conrad P, Mazet J, Wallender W, Miller W, Largier J. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76(20): 6821-6828. 2010.


Type X Toxoplasma gondii in a wild mussel and terrestrial carnivores from coastal California: New linkages between terrestrial mammals, runoff and toxoplasmosis of sea otters. Miller M.A., Miller W.A., Conrad P.A., James E.R.., Melli A.C., Leutenegger C.M., Dabritz H.A., Packham A.E., Paradies D., Harris M., Ames J., Jessup D.A., Worcester K., Grigg M.E. Int. J. Parasitol. 38: 1319-28. 2008.


Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden. Dabritz H.A., Miller M.A., Atwill E.R, Gardner I.A., Leutenegger C.M., Melli A.C., Conrad P.A. JAVMA. 231: 1676-1684. 2007.


Outdoor fecal deposition by free-roaming cats and attitudes of cat owners and nonowners toward stray pets, wildlife, and water pollution. Haydee A. Dabritz, E. Robert Atwill, Ian A. Gardner,Melissa A. Miller, and Patricia A. Conrad. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Vol. 229, No. 1, pp 74-81. 2006.


Clams (Corbicula fluminea) as bioindicators of fecal contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in freshwater ecosystems in California. Miller, W.A., E.R. Atwill, I.A. Gardner, M.A. Miller, H.M. Fritz, R.P. Hedrick, A.C. Melli, N.M. Barnes and P.A. Conrad. International Journal of Parasitology 35(6):673-84. 2005.


Zoonotic protozoa in the marine environment: A threat to aquatic mammals & public health.Olson M.E., Appelbee A., Measures L., Cole R.A., Lindsay D.S., Dubey J.P., Thomas N.J., Miller M.A., Conrad P.A., Gardner I.A., Kreuder C., Mazet J., Jessup D., Dodd E., Harris M., Ames J., Worcester K., Paradies D., Grigg M., Fayer R., Lewis E.J., Trout J.M., Xiao L., Howard D.W., Palmer R., Ludwig K., Tyler S.S.. Eds: R. Fayer, D. Lindsay. Vet. Parasitol. 125: 131–135. 2004.


The human-wildlife-domestic animal interface provides exciting research opportunities for parasitologists. Conrad P.A., M. Miller, A. J. Kjemtrup, W. Smith and I.A. Gardner. Journal of Parasitology 89(Suppl.): S27-S36.

Causes of Mortality in California Sea Otters During Periods of Population Growth and Decline. Estes J.A., B.H. Hatfield, K. Ralls, J. Ames. Marine Mammal Science, 19(1):198-216.


Oil spills and wildlife. Jessup D.A. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, pp 809-810. 1997.

Oiled wildlife care as part of a comprehensive oil spill prevention and response program: Legal, political, and social justifications. Jessup D.A. Fifth International Effects of Oil on Wildlife Proceedings. pp 176-179. 1997.

Field assay for the detection of petroleum products in wildlife. Mazet, J.A.K., I Gardner, D. Jessup, J. Rittenburg. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 59:513-519. 1997.

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